Background - Biomonitoring studies indicate a trend towards increased human exposure to diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), a replacement for dibutyl phthalate (DBP). Recent reviews have found DIBP to be a male reproductive toxicant, but have not evaluated other hazards of DIBP exposure.
Objective - To inform chemical risk assessment, we performed a systematic review to identify and characterize outcomes within six broad hazard categories (male reproductive, female reproductive, developmental, liver, kidney, and cancer) following exposure of nonhuman mammalian animals to DIBP or the primary metabolite, monoisobutyl phthalate (MIBP).
Conclusions - Results support DIBP as a children's health concern and indicate that male reproductive and developmental toxicities are hazards of DIBP exposure, with some evidence for female reproductive and liver toxicity. Data gaps include the need for more studies on male reproductive effects following postnatal and adult exposure, and studies to characterize potential hormonal mechanisms in females.