ATSDR | Toxicological Profile for 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
3,3''-dichlorobenzidine is a synthetic chlorinated primary aromatic amine structurally similar to benzidine
which is designated as a human carcinogen. It is used in the production of azo dyes and pigmentsin the
textile, inks, plastics, rubber, and leather industries. In the United States, manufacturing use has
significantly decreased since its classification as a possible human carcinogen, though its use in
manufacturing processes abroad continues.
Among the general population, people living near production facilities or hazardous waste sites are at risk
of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine exposure through industrial wastewater effluents or groundwater contamination.
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine has been detected over 6 km away from its source, and in wastewater effluent, can
travel long distances when bound to sediment. In wastewater effluent, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine has been
measured at concentrations of ranging from non-detectable to 654 μg/L, and has been estimated at a
median concentration <10 μg/L. Trace amount of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine has also been detected in
cosmetics that use colorants containing azo dyes in concentrations of 0.16-1.70 mg/kg; the highest
concentration was observed in cosmetic skin care facial masks.CONTINUE READING ON: wwwn.cdc.gov