Chronic Toxicity of Cobalt to Marine Organisms: Application of a Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach to Develop International Water Quality Standards

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Water quality standards for cobalt (Co) have yet to be developed for the European Union or the United States. The primary objective of the present study was to produce a data set comprising marine Co toxicity data that could be used by both the European Union and the United States to determine a predicted‐no‐effect concentration and ambient water quality criteria, respectively. Ten marine species, ranging from algae to fish, were subjected to chronic Co toxicity tests that were designed to meet international water quality testing standards.



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