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European Commission | Analytical and toxicological aspects of nanomaterials in different product groups: Challenges and opportunities

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ABSTRACT - The aim of this review article is to give a comprehensive overview of different scenarios in which release of NMs can occur, and related analytical challenges and solutions as well as toxicological considerations, such as dose-metrics, are discussed. Additionally, the utilization of NMs to deliver and release cargo molecules is covered. Furthermore, the most critical pathway for human exposure to NMs, namely inhalation, is discussed in the context of risk assessment. Analysis of NMs in food, innovative medicine or food contact materials is discussed with particular focus on NM presence and release including the question whether nanoparticles (NP) can migrate from polymer nanocomposites used in food contact materials. With regard to the toxicology and toxicokinetics of NMs, aspects of dose metrics and inhalation toxicity as well as comparison between in vitro and in vivo conclusions are considered. The definition of dose descriptors to be applied in toxicological testing is emphasized. In relation to potential exposure, opportunities arising from the use of advanced analytical techniques in more unique scenarios such as release of NPs from orthopedic implants are addressed. Alongside higher product performance and complexity, further challenges regarding material characterization and safety, as well as acceptance by the general public are expected.



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