• August 29, 2022
  • IARC

IARC Monographs Volume 130: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Four Other Industrial Chemicals


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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced that Volume 130 of the IARC Monographs, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and four other industrial chemicals, is now available online.

Three of these agents (1,2-diphenylhydrazine, diphenylamine, and isophorone) were evaluated by the Working Group for the first time.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was used widely before the implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, but that since the 1990s has been used mostly as a chemical feedstock in closed systems and for essential purposes, e.g. medical devices and aviation safety. Diphenylamine, N-methylolacrylamide, and isophorone are chemicals with a high production volume that have diverse uses in industry, including as intermediates. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine was primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of benzidine dyes, which has ceased in the USA and European Union, although such use may continue elsewhere. For all agents, data were sparse regarding exposure levels, but indicated that exposures are higher in occupational situations than in the general population.

The Working Group concluded that 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, diphenylamine, N-methylolacrylamide, and isophorone are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) mainly on the basis of sufficient evidence for cancer in experimental animals. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was evaluated as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) on the basis of limited evidence for cancer in humans (positive associations were seen for multiple myeloma) and sufficient evidence for cancer in experimental animals. For all agents, there was limited mechanistic evidence.

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