"Critical Raw Materials Resilience: Charting a Path towards greater Security and Sustainability" | Communication from EU Commission to Parliament



1.Introduction

Metals, minerals and natural materials are part of our daily lives. Those raw materials that are most important economically and have a high supply risk are called critical raw materials. Critical raw materials are essential to the functioning and integrity of a wide range of industrial ecosystems. Tungsten makes phones vibrate. Gallium and indium are part of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in lamps. Semiconductors need silicon metal. Hydrogen fuel cells and electrolysers need platinum group metals.

Access to resources is a strategic security question for Europe’s ambition to deliver the Green Deal. The new industrial strategy for Europe proposes to reinforce Europe’s open strategic autonomy, warning that Europe’s transition to climate neutrality could replace today’s reliance on fossil fuels with one on raw materials, many of which we source from abroad and for which global competition is becoming more fierce. The EU’s open strategic autonomy in these sectors will therefore need to continue to be anchored in diversified and undistorted access to global markets for raw materials . At the same time, and in order to decrease external dependencies and environmental pressures, the underlying problem of rapidly increasing global resources demand needs to be addressed by reducing and reusing materials before recycling them.

[...]

2020 Critical Raw Materials (new as compared to 2017 in bold)

Antimony

Hafnium

Phosphorus

barite 

Heavy Rare Earth Elements

Scandium

Beryllium

Light Rare Earth Elements

Silicon metal

Bismuth

Indium

Tantalum

Borate 

Magnesium

Tungsten

Cobalt

Natural Graphite

Vanadium

Coking Coal

Natural Rubber

Bauxite

Fluorspar

Niobium

Lithium

Gallium

Platinum Group Metals

Titanium

Germanium

Phosphate rock

Strontium

[....]

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