Bioavailability and phytotoxicity of rare earth metals to Triticum aestivum under various exposure scenarios.


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It is a daunting challenge to predict toxicity and accumulation of rare earth metals (REMs) in different exposure scenarios (e.g., varying water chemistry and metal combinations). Herein, we investigated the toxicity and uptake of La and Ce in the presence of various levels of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and at different pH values, as well as the combined effects of La and Ce in wheat Triticum aestivum. Major cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) significantly mitigated the toxicity and accumulation of La3+/Ce3+.

Toxicity and uptake of La, Ce, and La–Ce mixtures could be well quantified by the multi-metal biotic ligand model (BLM) and by the Langmuir-type uptake model with the consideration of the competitive effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+, with more than 85.1% of variations explained.

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